Friday, March 16, 2012



Keroncong is the name of a type of musical instrument ukulele as well as the name of the type of music that uses distinctive Indonesia keroncong musical instruments, flute, and a female singer.

The Origins

Keroncong come from similar roots music known as fado Portuguese introduced by sailors and merchant slave ship that nation since the 16th century to the archipelago. From mainland India (Goa) was first entered music in the Malacca and then played by the slaves of the Moluccas. The weakening influence of the Portuguese in the 17th century in the archipelago does not necessarily mean the loss of this music as well. This early form of music called Moresco (a dance of Spanish origin, such as the rather slow polka rhythm), where one of the rearranged songs by Kusbini now known as Kr. Muritsku, accompanied by a stringed musical instrument. Keroncong music coming from the monument called the monument keroncong. During its development, it makes a number of traditional elements of the archipelago, such as the use of the flute as well as some components of the gamelan. At about the 19th century forms of popular music has been mixed in many places in the archipelago, even down to the Malay Peninsula. This golden era continued until sometime in the 1960s, and then faded due to the inclusion of a wave of popular music (rock music that developed since 1950, and victories Beatle music and the like since 1961 until now). Nevertheless, keroncong music still played and enjoyed by all walks of life in Indonesia and Malaysia until now.

Fado, The Protestant Church and Music Keroncong.

As we all know that music Keroncong into Indonesia in 1512, which at the time of the Portuguese expedition leader Alfonso de Albuquerque came to Malacca and the Moluccas in 1512. Of course Portuguese sailors brought the song kind of Fado, the Portuguese folk song tone Arabic (minor scales, because the Arab Moors once occupied Portugal / Spain in 711-1492. Fado song type still exist in Latin America (former Spanish colony), as sung by Trio Los panchos or Los Paraguayos, or also the song in West Sumatra (Arab culture) like Chicken Lapeh Den.

At the time prisoners and slaves from Portuguese Goa (India) in Kampung Tugu released in 1661 by the Government of the Dutch East Indies Company (VOC), they are required to convert from Catholicism to Protestantism, so that the habit of singing to be singing Fado as in the Protestant Church, which in major scale.

Later in the year 1880 Music Keroncong birth, and early music is also influenced Keroncong Hawaiian songs in major scale, which is also growing rapidly in Indonesia along with Keroncong Music (see Music Spare or Ambon The Hawaian Seniors General of Police-led Hugeng).

Musical Instruments

In its earliest form, Moresco music accompanied by strings, like a violin, ukulele, and cello. Percussion is also sometimes used. Set the orchestra of this kind are still used by keroncong monument, which still form keroncong played by the community of Portuguese descendants of slaves who lived in Kampung Ambon Monument, North Jakarta, which later expanded to the south in Kemayoran and Gambir by Betawi people mingle with the music Tanjidor (year 1880 to 1920). 1920-1960 year development center moved to Solo, and adapt to a slower rhythm of nature according to the Javanese.
Pem-"native"-an art making keroncong mixed, with musical instruments such as

* Indian sitar
* Fiddle
* Bamboo flute
* Drum, kenong, and saron as a set of gamelan
* Gong.
Today, the musical instruments used in orchestras keroncong include

* Choke ukulele, strings 3 (nylon), tone sequence is G, B and E; as the main instrument voicing crong - crong so-called keroncong (discovered in 1879 in Hawaii, and is a milestone early onset keroncong music)
* Cak ukulele, strings 4 (steel), tone sequence A, D, Fis, and B. So when the other instruments playing scales C, cak play on scales F (known as in F);
* Acoustic guitar as the guitar melodies, played with style kontrapuntis (anti melody);
* Violin (replacing fiddle); since been made by the Amati or Stradivarius of Cremona Italy around the year 1600 has not changed its model to the present;
* Flute (replacing the Bamboo Flute), the Tempo Era Albert Doeloe wear Flute (ebony flute with holes and valve, somewhat broken voice, orchestra samples Lief Java), while in the Era of the Eternal Keroncong have used Bohm flute (flute metal all the valve, the sound is more refined with a beautiful tone ornaments, Sunarno flutis example of Solo or Beny Waluyo of Jakarta);
* Cello; betot replace the drum, also has not changed since made by Amati and Stradivarius of Cremona Italy 1600, only played in keroncong typically plucked / Pizzicato;
* Contrabass (replacing Gong), also a plucked bass, has never changed since the Amati and Stradivarius of Cremona Italy 1600 made;
Rhythm keeper held by ukulele and bass. Kontrapuntis guitar and cello which regulate rhythmic chord transition. Violin melody serves as a guide, as well as decoration / ornament below. Flut fill the ornaments, which floating melodies fill the empty space.
Keroncong form mixed with popular music now use a single organ and synthesizer to accompany the song keroncong (in a single stage of the all party organs could play keroncong, dangdut, rock, polka, march).

Types Keroncong

Keroncong music leaning more on chord progressions and the type of tool used. Since the mid-20 th century has been known for at least three kinds of keroncong, which can be recognized from the pattern of progression akordnya. For musicians who already understand the plot, to accompany the songs keroncong actually not difficult, because quite fit the prevailing pattern. Development is done by keeping the consistency of the pattern. In addition, there are mixed forms and adaptations.

Development of Contemporary Music Keroncong

After experiencing a long evolution since the arrival of the Portuguese in Indonesia (1522) and the settlement of the slaves in the village of Monument in 1661, and this is the early evolution of the long keroncong music (1661-1880), nearly two centuries, but has yet to show the identity keroncong actual voice-crong crong-crong, so it may be said keroncong music was not born in 1661-1880.

And finally experienced the evolution of music keroncong last short since 1880 until now, with three stages of the recent developments that have taken place and an estimate of new developments (keroncong millenium). Initial milestone was in 1879 [4], in the discovery of the ukulele in Hawaii [5] which soon became the main instrument in keroncong (ukulele sound: crong-crong-crong), whereas the early millennium keroncong existing signs, but not yet developing (Mariah Carey).

Four stages of the development is [6]

     (a) The keroncong old days (1880-1920),
     (b) The eternal keroncong (1920-1960), and
     (c) keroncong modern period (1960-2000), and
     (d) The keroncong millennium (2000-present)

Keroncong Old Days Period (1880-1920)

Ukulele was found in 1879 in Hawaii, it is estimated that next year a new Keroncong transformed in 1880, in the monument and then spread to the southern region and Gambir Kemayoran (see there is a track and Markets Gambir Kemayoran, circa 1913). Komedie Stamboel 1891-1903 born in the city of Port of Surabaya in 1891, a Performance Style Instanbul, which held a road show in the Netherlands East Indies, Singapore and Malaya by rail or steamer. In general, the show includes the story 1001 Nights (Arabian) and the European story (and the People's Opera), including Tale of India and Persia. As an interlude, between the scene and the opening, the music is played marches, polkas, harp, and keroncong. Special music keroncong Stambul known at that time I, Stambul II, and III Stambul.

At that time Stambul upbeat songs (about 120 meters to one beat a quarter note), in which village residents as a monument or call Kusbini Keroncong Portuguese, while Gesang said as Keroncong Quick, and mingle with the native Betawi Tanjidor. At this time the Indo known musicians, and the legendary violinist M. Sagi (note recording Idris Sardi violin song Jali-jali Stambul II based on the arrangement of M. Sagi). As it is known that the length opera song is 16 bars, which consist of:

Stambul I:
This song is for example the Light of the Moon, Cut Rice, Nina Bobo, Sarinande, O Ina Ni Keke, Bolelebo, etc.. the structure of the form A - B - A - B or A - B - C - D (16 bar):

     * | I,,, |,,,, |,,,, | V7,,, |
     * |,,,, |,,,, |,,,, | I,,, |
     * | I7,,, | IV,,, |,, V7, | I,,, |
     * |,,,, | V7,,, |,,,, | I,,, | |

Stambul II:
This song is for example Si Jampang, Jali-Jali, where the entrance to the IV chord as a feature of the structure Stambul II A - B - A - C (16 bar):

     * | I. . . |. . . . |. . . . | IV,,, | (signs. Means tacet)
     * |,,,, |,,,, |,, V7, | I,,, |
     * |,,,, |,,,, |,,,, | V7,,, |
     * |,,,, |,,,, |,,,, | I,,, | |

Stambul III:
This song is such Kemayoran, which is similar to Keroncong A sli so often incorrectly pronounced with Kr. Kemayoran, which should Stambul III Kemayoran, with the structure of the Prelude - A - Interlude - B - C (16 bar):

     * Pr | I,,, |,,,, | Prelude 2 bars
     * A1 |,,,, |,,,, |
     * A2 | II #,,, | V7,,, | Modulation of 2 bar
     * In |,,,, | IV,,, | Interlude 2 bars
     * B1 |,,,, | I,,, |
     * B2 | V7,,, | I,,, |
     * C1 |,,,, |,,,, |
     * C2 | V7,,, | I,,, | |

Musiq Losquin Bugis: From the old days of this period also born in Makassar keroncong typical form known as Musiq losquin Bugis, for example, the song sung by Ongkona Arumpone Sukaenah B. Salamaki. Keroncong rhythm, without flute-violin-cello, but with a strong guitar melody, much like the style Tjoh de Fretes of Ambon. If we connect all of this, then there is a line in common with the orchestra Keroncong Cafrino Monument (Kr. Market Gambier) - Orchestra Keroncong Lief Java (Kr. Brantas River) - Losquin Bugis (Ongkona Arumpone) - Hawaian Orchestra Tjoh de Fretes (Ambon Island), the style of the era of old days with a rapid rhythm is the kendangan cello and guitar melodies with an accent.

Keroncong lasting period (1920-1960)

At this time the length of track has been changed to 32 bar, due to the influence of American pop music that hit the dance floor hotel2 in Indonesia at that time, dominated by musicians from the Philippines (such as Pablo, Sambayon, etc.), and consequently also the song at that time was 32 measure also, note the song Indonesia Raya (created in 1924) at that time also had 32 signatures. Further development of the switching center to the east following the railway line through Solo and rhythm are also much slower (around 80 for a quarter of a tone) with kendangan kendangan gamelan-like cello, guitar and zither melodies similar to the strains of gamelan music that kontrapuntis. This period was born Solo musicians, such as Gesang and the legendary singer Annie Landouw. Eternal Keroncong song consists of: Idioms Keroncong, Stambul Keroncong, and Keroncong Original.

Idioms Keroncong

Form there are two versions of the song style. The first A - A - B - A with A repetition of the second as the standard pop song: D Verse - Verse A - Bridge B - Verse A, length of 32 bars. Vary slightly in the second version, which is a direct repetition in part B. Though it has a standard form, but the development of this rhythm is more freely expressed. Singer Hetty Koes Endang versatile for example, he often recorded songs non keroncong and style using the same rhythm, and most still called style. Its chord groove as follows:

     * Verse A | V7,,, | I,,, | IV, V7, | I,,, | I,,, | V7,,, | V7,,, | I,,, |
     * Verse A | V7,,, | I,,, | IV, V7, | I,,, | I,,, | V7,,, | V7,,, | I,,, |
     * Bridge B | I7,,, | IV,,, | IV, V, | I,,, | I,,, | II #,,, | II #,,, | V,,, |
     * Verse A | V7,,, | I,,, | IV, V7, | I,,, | I,,, | V7,,, | V7,,, | I,,, |

Stambul Keroncong:

Stambul Keroncong form (ABA-B ') x 2 = 16 bar x 2 = 32 bar, is a modification of a 16-bar Stambul II to 32 bar (adjust the standard 32-bar Keroncong Abadi). Keroncong opera is a type whose name is taken from a play which is known by the end of the 19th century until the early half of the 20th century in Indonesia with the name of comedy opera. The name "opera" is taken from Istanbul in Turkey.

Stambul Keroncong chord groove is as follows. (sign - is not tolled tacet or accompaniment):

     * | I --- | ---- | ---- | IV,,, | dg broken chord I opened to find the tone
     * | IV,,, | IV,,, | IV, V, | I,,, |
     * | I,,, | I,,, | I,,, | V,,, |
     * | V,,, | V,,, | V,,, | I,,, |
     * | I,,, | I,,, | I,,, | IV,,, | 16 bar is the repetition of the first 16 bars or similar
     * | IV,,, | IV,,, | IV, V, | I,,, |
     * | I,,, | I,,, | I,,, | V,,, |
     * | V,,, | V,,, | V,,, | I,,, |

Original keroncong
Keroncong original song has the form A - B - B '. Song consists of 8 rows, 8 rows x 4 bars = 32 bars, which opened with PRELUDE 4 bar that played an instrumental, then inserted as a standard 4-bar interlude that played an instrumental as well. The original Keroncong preceded by voorspel or Prelude, or the intro taken from line 7 (B3) leads to the tone / chord beginning of the song, performed by a musical instrument like a flute melody / flut, violin, or guitar; and tussenspel or interlude or Intermezzo in the middle the middle after modulation / modulatie / modulation is standard for all original keroncong: Chronology akordnya as set out below:

* Pr | V,,, | I, I7, | IV, V7, | I,,, | Prelude 4 bars taken from the row-7 (B3)
* (A1) | I,,, | I,,, | V,,, | V,,, |
* (A2) | II #,,, | II #,,, | V,,, | Modulation is characteristic of the original as much as 4 bars keroncong
* In | V,,, | V,,, | V,,, | IV,,, | Interlude 4 bars for all the songs become the standard
* (B1) | IV,,, | IV,,, | V7,,, | I,,, |
* (B2) | I,,, | V7,,, | V7,,, | I, I7, |
* (B3) | IV, V7, | I, I7, | IV, V7, | I,,, |
* (B2) | I,,, | V7,,, | V7,,, | I,,, |
Kadensa Keroncong known in Classical Music Theory 4 (four) types Kadensa, where Kadensa is a series of harmony as a cover by the end of the melody or in the middle of a sentence, so that the melody can be completely closed or half closed (temporarily) the melody. While the Tierce de Picardy be included in Kadensa, and the period of the Eternal Keroncong Kadensa created a new one, called Kadensa Keroncong with a series of cover I-I7-IV-V7-I.

A. Kadensa with V7-I series called Kadensa Perfect, perfect for close range and was a perfect stop.
2. But if the X-V7 chord to end rangaian, then called the Imperfect or Half Kadensa Kadensa, for example, a series of Super Tonic - Predominant Septim.
3. If the circuit is terminated on the harmony of X-VI, it is called Kadensa Disconnected, for example Doninan Septim - Submedian.
4. In a series of IV-I called Kadensa Plagal, have subdued nature as if we say "Amen" in prayer.
5. Minor key track is closed on major key, called the Tierce de Piecardy, so it really is not kadensa, but is usually used in the final song
6. Kadensa Keroncong, specially developed in keroncong music, harmony is a series of I7-IV-V7-I
Ismail Marzuki (1914-1958) Composer Ismail Marzuki Keroncong included in an Era of Eternal life, yet his songs are very modern in his time, for example, pair of eye balls were written in minor keys that can be sung to the accompaniment of such keroncong keroncong beat (1958).
Xylophone Keromong Gambang Keromong keroncong style is one that was developed by the Ethnic Chinese (xylophone is a musical instrument like the marimba pieces of wood, while keromong is another term for kempul) which was developed around 1922 in Kemayoran Jakarta (tanjidor), but then developed in Semarang around year 1949 (remember the song Gambang Semarang - Oey Yok afternoon). Gambang Keromong actually born in the period 1920-1960 is Keroncong Eternal Mix embryo born in Keroncong Modern Period.
The Golden Age (The Golden Age). In 1952, Radio Republik Indonesia (RRI) held a race with three types of Radio Stars, Keroncong, Entertainment and Seriosa. Sanmping was also contested in creating songs keroncong, one pememnag is the song Keroncong Kusbini Musicians Pastoral. At the end of Keroncong Abadi (1920-1960) was a Golden Age (Golden Age) for keroncong music.

Keroncong Modern Period (1960-2000)

Keroncong developments are still in Solo and the surrounding area, but there were many new and different styles Keroncong The Eternal (including musicians), and a renewal in accordance with the environment.

Start Time keroncong modern (1960-2000) all the standard rules (grip) Music Keroncong not apply, because it follows the standard rules (grip) Pop universally applicable, for example, minor scales, pentatonic modes Java / China, a series of diatonic and chromatic harmony, dissonant chord, or atonal nature politonal (on campursari), no longer grip megenal keroncong original form or opera, there are nuances dangdut rhythm (congdut), starting in 1998 began to go rap music (Mariah Carey), etc..

Java Style

Keroncong adaptation of gamelan musical tradition known as the Java style, a style that is different from here. Java style has a special feature on the addition of instruments such as zither, drums (can be represented with a modified game of cello-style drums), saron, and the presence or mysticism in the form of introduction take vocal without instruments to open before starting the whole rhythm. Idioms Java in 1968 developed into Mix.

Generally have a pop song structures, namely A - A - B - A or even A - B - C - D view of the number of 32 bars. Java Idioms famous song in 1958 was the creation of Anjar Any (1936-2008): Yen Ing Tawang Ana latitude (Tawang in Javanese means: clouds, sky, and the other meaning of the name of a village in Magetan, If There is a Star in the Sky ). Java style became famous by Waljinah ever as a champion of the junior high school in Solo RRI 1958.

Keroncong Beat

The foundation was started by the leadership of Rudy Pirngadie Stay Fresh, in Jakarta in 1959 and could accompany western pop songs (the desire to move more universal). At that time, Idris Sardi joined a tour of the New York World's Fair in the United States with the violin in 1964 with the intention of going to introduce the song pop west (I left my heart in San Francisco, at that time in 1964 this song is one hit in the world) to the accompaniment keroncong beat, but he's been fined due to violation of the copyright without permission.

With Keroncong Beat the variety of songs (not in harmony keroncong series, including lectures Minor key) can sing like La Paloma, Monalisa, Thistle, Prickly Rose, etc..

Campur Sari 

At South Mountain (DI Yogyakarta) in 1968 Manthous gamelan instrument introducing joint and keroncong music, which became known as the Mix. Now the Solo, Sragen, Ngawi, and the surrounding area, known as a center of musical artists campursari. Regent Sukoharjo enliven even the stock campursari.

Keroncong Dangdut (Congdut)

Keroncong dangdut (Congdut) is the answer to the swift effect of dangdut music in popular music in Indonesia since the 1980s. Along with the strengthening of juice mixed in Javanese popular music performances, a musician, is said to start from Surakarta, incorporating elements into the beat dangdut songs classic and new Java style. Didi sunken is the main character of this reform movement. Well-known songs include Racing, Sewu Kuto.

Glory Music Keroncong period. In the period is the period of triumph Keroncong Modern Music Keroncong, where there was music everywhere Idioms Java, Keroncong Beat, Mix, Shania Twain and the last with Didi Congdut of sunken, down to Suriname and the Netherlands (2004-2008). Apparently this is the music's heyday Keroncong, so worried that Keroncong Akan Gesang Dead (2008, speech before he died).

Keroncong Future Millennium (2000-Present)

Although the music in the era keroncong millennium (2000's) has not been part of Indonesian popmusic industry, but some still appreciate the music keroncong. Keroncong music group Red and White [7], the London-based keroncong still active enough to do the show. Additionally, MariahCarey and her group Black Eyed Fade 2 Black, creating a composition titled "Keroncong Scaly-breasted" that successfully combines style rap music with background music rhythm keroncong. In 2008 the International Keroncong Festival @ Solo, Harmony Chinese Music Group made ​​the atmosphere by incorporating other elements of traditional Chinese musical instruments and renamed as Mandarin Keroncong.

Figure Keroncong

Indonesia is one of the characters has a considerable contribution in raising keroncong music is the father of Gesang. The man from the city of Surakarta (Solo) this year to even get anycompensation from the Japanese government for successfully introducing keroncong music there.One of the most famous song (song) | Solo. Because of that dedication, by Gesang nicknamed "Crocodile Keroncong" by the personnel of keroncong Indonesia, called for keroncong music experts. Gesang said the MASA rhythm keroncong opera (1880-1920), which develops in Jakarta (Monument, Kemayoran, and Gambier) as Keroncong Quick; while after moving to the center ofthe development of Solo (MASA keroncong ABADI: 1920-1960) is slower rhythm.

Origin of the name "Crocodile Keroncong" for Gesang range in his songs, "Solo". Solo is the name of a river in the area of ​​Surakarta. As is known, has a crocodile in the swamp and the riverhabitat. The largest reptile in the habitat almost invincible, as a fierce predator. The underlyingsupposition that sort of thing is why Gesang referred to as "Crocodile Keroncong".

On the other hand the name of Anjar Any (Solo, Idioms Java creator of more than 2000 songs, who died in 2008) have also contributed to the keroncong for its Waljinah Idioms Java (Solo), whereas R. Pirngadie (Jakarta) to Keroncong Beat, Manthous (South Mountain, Yogyakarta) toMix and Koe Plus (Solo / Jakarta) to Keroncong Rock, as well as sunken Didi (Ngawi) forCongdut.





  1. jamboe Entertainment is bringing the music of Keroncong to the States with the new release from the IMC Krontjong Ensemble. Preview the tracks and purchase your copy online today from